Martin's Documentation Legacy 2003

Martin was registrar with Hampshire County Council Museums Service from 1989 to 2002. He wrote the following notes around 2003. They are out-of-date but I am including them for historic interest. On this website, I have combined the Notes and the Checklist and use Map Group for Map Type. The terms he uses below will still relate to the Documentation of the Map Collection; the Collection was transferred to the Hampshire Cultural Trust when the County Museums Service was disbanded.   JMN 2020




Martin was a museum curator to his fingertips, though perhaps not in the current fashion. He believed that the prime function of museums was to preserve our history through objects, and that the general public, as owners in common, should have access. As well as preserving objects, museums were duty bound to know and record what they had in their care, and securely link every object to any associated historical information and research, and in a way which allows effective retrieval.

Martin was interested in everything. He had always meticulously recorded things, and this increased his awareness, knowledge and appreciation of objects. Museum documentation became a lifelong passion and he was at the forefront of its development; he insisted that this needed daily hands-on experience with collections. He was a scientist, a programmer, busy, efficient and decisive, working to a pattern but always on the look out for the unexpected. The introduction of computers helped his work enormously and the internet meant that museums had no excuse for keeping data to themselves. Being able to show images of maps online was an additional bonus, allowing a far better view of details and to a far greater audience - at the same time protecting fragile items from unnecessary handling - not that a digital scan could ever be regarded as a replacement for the original map, which continues to be the primary source, the material evidence against which any copy or presentation is measured.
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The Map Collection of Hampshire County Council Museums Service (HMCMS) is the most comprehensive collection of printed maps of the county accessible to the local public; there are gaps, but we are trying to fill these as chance offers. The Museums Service also holds large collections of working maps, mostly Ordnance Survey maps, starting with the 25inch County Series from the 1870s.

Manuscript maps are generally held by the Hampshire Record Office, Winchester, Hampshire.

The Map Collection is stored at the Museum Service's headquarters, Chilcomb House, Chilcomb Lane, Winchester. Museum Service HQ is offices, not a traditional museum with display galleries. Maps in the reserve collections may be seen by appointment; contact the Registrar or the Keeper of Hampshire History. The offices are open office hours Monday to Friday. These arrangements are those in place at the time this download was made.

A selection of the maps might be on public display in one or other of the service's museums in Hampshire. If you wish to see a specific map you should check with the Registrar or Keeper first, to find out where it is.

The map collection is well documented. The database can be searched by many sorts of keyword, including - map maker name, date or period, title, scale, etc. We hope that identifications are correct; but we welcome suggestions for improvement of records from anybody. The author has many years experience in museum documentation and can advise on the documentation of maps.

The museum service uses an Identity number system prefixed 'HMCMS:'. Using this number makes it easier for a curator to know to which item you are referring.

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very good records   This guideline was set up for making records of early printed maps in the Map Collection at Hampshire CC Museum Service. Maps are treated as a special collection having 'Better than Good Records' as defined for HMCMS.

This guideline is part of a large corpus of museum documentation advice known as the OBJECT Format Rules (OFR). Other OFR term rules, termlists, etc are referred to throughout the guidline and are assumed to be in force. The notes here are 'extras'. Enquiries about OFR should be sent to Martin Norgate:-
Recording map type, map features, scale line, scale, various wxh measurements, and inscriptions, as well as the usual Object Record data have been found to be exceptionally useful in organising the HMCMS collection of early printed maps. The HMCMS Map Collection is supported by parallel class records of map types, and history file notes about individual maps.

RECORD_NUMBER   A record cannot exist without an Identity number. Overall control of HMCMS Identity numbers is described in a local rule and follows OFR ground rules:-
The Map Collection dates from the earliest history of HMCMS; independent museums in the county. Various early forms of Identity number are still valid today; this is described throughly in the HMCMS Identity number rules. The current pattern is:-
[Museum code]:[Identity number]
The year reflects the year of Acquisition.
environment & maps
A first entry using the house system is mandatory. A third level keyword has been defined for maps of country, county, town, etc etc. These are not used for this project.
CLASSIFIED_NAME    Repeat entries should be recorded to indicate the subject contents of the map if it is not just a topographical map. Termlist:-
SIMPLE_NAME    Simple name field is mandatory.
Record, for example:-
road book
Particular sorts of map can be recorded with a specific Simple name, eg:-
road map
street map
geological map
railway map
canal map
In each case recording Other name 'map'. Termlist and object name term rule:-
A special rule is used for strip maps; the page or plate number is added as detail, eg:-
strip map (pl.25)
OTHER_NAME    Other name field may be used for an alternative term. In particular record the sort of print, eg:-
And record terms for particular sorts of map, eg:-
thematic map
TITLE    Record the title of the sheet IFF there is one. For guidance:-
It is worth recording more than one title if there are several; and a translated title if the original is not in English. Just what constitutes the 'title' from all the stuff printed in a map's title cartouche is sometimes uncertain; which creates indexing problems. While a 'New Map of Hampshire' is a suitable title for a record, it is not clear what is the Title out of the long descriptive header 'New Map Specially Corrected from latest Observations ... of Hampshire'. It is not possible to offer firm guidance, and so indexing must be a weak tool. Note that the exact title printed on the map will be recorded as an Inscription, that the Title here is to some degree conventional, need not be 'correct'.
Map Collection
This field is mandatory in HMCMS. HMCMS termlist:-
BRIEF_DESCRIPTION    A first instance of this field is mandatory. Record a sufficient description of the item, follow the OFR style rules:-
For a map the following elements will be useful:-
Map, [sort of print and whether coloured], [Title], [geographical coverage], about [no] miles to 1 inch, made by [person], [place], [date].
BRIEF_DESCRIPTION    Repeat the field for an extended description of the map, its contents, dedication, interpretation, etc. Which maps in a road book or atlas that are relevant to Hampshire might be listed. Separate records should be made for each of these maps.
The route of a strip map, or particular routes on a road map should be described in a formalised style, eg:-
[route name] - from [place], [county]; through [place], [place], [county]; then [place], [place], [county]; and [place], to [place], [county].
Use your common sense to make this readable and informative.
: map feature: [feature] & [feature] & ...
Use the keyword separator (&). Use terms like:-
compass rose
hill hachuring
See the example. Note that 'normal' cartogography is not taken for granted in this exercise. A feature termlist has been drafted as an use of Aspect field, see:-
This data has the potential to be used as a dating tool.
INSCRIPTION    Record in the usual MODES pattern:-
[type]: [method]: [position]: [description]: [transcription]
Do not try to include all the words on the map! Do record the title panel, and inscriptions for the map maker, and the engraver, and perhaps the dedicatee - in repeat fields as necessary. Term rule:-
watermark::: [description]: [transcription]
I have no expertise in watermarks, and no handy reference books at HMCMS; few watermarks have been recorded for maps, as yet. (This could be an excellent Leicester attachment project for an interested student?)
: map type: HantsMap & [map type]
: map type: Norden 1607
If one is declared for the map, then record the HantsMap 'map type'. The terms are controlled by termlist:-
currently held in:-
Map types are further defined by entries in:-
Map type can be used in the Old Hampshire Mapped project as a search word to find relevant Object Records of maps, Class Records of map types, or Map Notes ie history file essays written from studies of maps, scanned images, etc. A 'map type' secondary index should exist in each database in the project.
NB: map type contains a name and a date which must not be construed as being the map maker and date the map was made, map type is a conventional term. Production and Association groups hold analysed Person, Place, and Date data for the map being recorded, which are also included in Brief description.
PART:ASPECT:DESC    Record on the pattern:-
: scale line: [no] miles = [no] mm
: scale line: 10 miles = 66.4 mm
The dimensions of the scale line are a very good identifying clue for maps; the data should be used for indexing. The class records for Hampshire maps in HANSTMAP.mdf include this data supported by an image of the scale line.
Measure the scale line to a tenth of a millimetre as best you can; but do realise that the real error will be no better than +- quarter millimetre. And, remember that paper shrinks and expands quite a lot. It is possible to measure the scale line very accurately from a high quality scanned image if the scanning dpi has been controlled (do use a flat bed scanner, not a camera).
If the scale line has a main section 0 to however many miles plus a small section, usually 1 mile leftwards, for fine divisions then record on the model of example:-
: scale line: 5+1 miles = 57.4 mm
Other units might have been used by the map maker, chains, nautical miles, for examples. Record these on the same sort of pattern.
If there are several scale lines then record each separately.
The scale line can be used to estimate the scale of the map: BUT there are dangers, see PART:DIMEN:READING below.
: sheet no: [sheet number]
Sheet numbers as allocated by the map maker need to be recorded, and this is the best place for them. BUT those numbers need some sort of prefix to indicate whose numbering they come from. This terminology issue is not resolved. A new rule will be declared as part of ASPECT.trm in OFR
PRODUCTION    if possible record the map maker, engraver, publisher:-
map maker: [name]
Term rules:-
DATE    Detail may be recorded, like: (orig survey), (revision), (2nd edn) ... term rule:-
ASSOCIATION    in particular:-
or other terms? or leave out.
[role]: [name]
Role terms, termlist:-
Record person names in a standard form. Term rule:-
CONTENT    Various strategies to describe the land coverage of the map exactly are possible, but not firmly recommended at present. Term rule:-
PLACE    Record the overall coverage of the map, using the usual rules for Place field. For county maps the entries are likely to be:-
Christchurch area & Dorset
Isle of Wight
DATE    Record the year of the mapping.
OBJECT    Record objects on the map which cannot be taken for granted, or are the special subject of the map, eg:-
biological site
burgage plot
conservation area
electricity supply
archaeological site
field name
land ownership
land use
listed building
ridge and furrow
street name
water supply
BUT also be aware of the map feature keywords which do the same thing in another way. This is an unresolved redundancy; redundant data is not necessarily a bad thing.
It is not easy to define a practical recording strategy that will make retrieval of maps the 'best' possible. Do you assume that the searcher will know to look under 'Hampshire' when they are looking for one of its towns, 'Alton' OR do you help them by recording the major places within the overall map area as well as terms that cover the area? I am inclined to be a bit helpful, just a bit. A map of the whole county should include explicit Content.Place data for the 21 old towns; this will be in a separate Content group with Type=towns.
These, and only these towns are recorded if found on the map; other places are ignored:-
Bishops Waltham
New Alresford
Record the contents in repeat Place and subordinate Place_name fields on the pattern:-
Alton & Hampshire
Aulton & Hamshire
which has the modern place names in Place field, and the map's spelling of the place name, and the county name in subordinate Place_name field. A town's ancient name, 'Venta' for instance, might be recorded in a further Place_name field.
Carried out consistently, for the type specimen maps in the HMCMS Map Collection, this provides a useful survey of what town names were in use when.
DATE    Repeat the year of the mapping.
COORDINATES    It would be possible to record an 6 figure NGR for the four corners of the map; as a keyword list in order:-
bottom left & top left & top right & bottom right
Term rule:-
Record the coordinates in an otherwise empty Place field, not as a subfield of one of the series of Place fields already in use for place names.
You could just record top left and bottom right, or bottom left and top right, coordinates. I prefer to record all four corners explicitly, in order round the map. This data is not essential, but may be very useful in the long term - perhaps when using CAD or GIS systems - to which MODES can export. Remember that NGR data can be manipulated for output by MMAGIC routines working in MODES.
The corner coordinates of maps have not been recorded in the Old Hampshire Mapped project, as yet. Too many of the maps in the collection are Hampshire, and have very similar corners, so the data is not very helpful.
ACQUISITION    This group is mandatory. Normal OFR term rule:-
METHOD    This field is mandatory. Termlist:-
VALUATION    This field is mandatory in HMCMS; OFR term rule and local rules:-
MATERIAL    Record the base material eg:-
OFR term rule and termlist:-
And record
textile & [what textile]
for mounted maps, in a repeat field.
CONDITION    Follow the normal OFR term rule and termlist:-
: wxh, sheet: [width]x[height]cm
: wxh, plate: [width]x[height]mm
: wxh, map: [width]x[height]mm
Do record them all if possible! The sheet size is the size of the piece of paper; the plate size is recorded iff you can see the plate marks clearly; the map size is measured across its border lines, measured across the middle of the map. Term rule:-
Maps are a technical artefact. Use the normal scientific/technical order wxh, like (x,y) cartesian coordinates; do NOT use the arts curators' habitual hxw.
: scale: 1 to [number] ?
: scale: 1 to 240000 ? (1 to 243371 from scale line wrongly assuming statute mile)
A scale should be recorded; you may have to get out your arithmetic skills and a ruler and work out what the scale is to a reasonable accuracy. The map's own scale line will give you one estimate - but be aware that the 'mile' used by the map maker may not be a modern statute mile. Early maps often use an undefined 'Old English Mile'.
If there is a scale line M miles = S mm then the map scale, expressed in map miles, is calculated by:-
M x 63360 x 25.4 / S
There being 63360 inches in 1 mile; 25.4 mm in 1 inch.
For example:-
10 miles = 66.4 mm
10 x 63360 x 25.4 / 66.4 = 243371
as noted above. Do not forget to round this off so as not to imply a false accuracy; also record that the map's mile may not be a statute mile.
Latitude and logitude scales in the map's border enable another estimate. However be wary, some latitude and longitude scales seem to have been applied to maps after the map was drawn, and may bear no close relationship to the plot.
Failing these, or extra to them, you can measure the positions of a number of towns, compare them with the positions expressed in NGR coordinates, and calculate an accurate value of the map's scale. Software DISTTAB.exe from MN can carry out the arithmetic for you, and calculate what the map maker's mile meant as well. Refer to website:-
for explanations of these ideas. Example files, input and results, are:-
This approach allows you to get an estimate of the Old English Mile used by the map maker.
Common scales and some helpful known distances are listed in file:
Note that the scale line itself is recorded in the earlier Description group in Part:aspect:desc field.
REMEMBER that paper is not stable. As a [very] rough guide:-
paper changes by 0.2-1n length per 10%rH change in humidity.
PART:DIMEN:READING    If the map has longitude scales then read, or estimate, of the longitude of Winchester, eg:-
: longitude, Winchester: 1d 18.4m W (approx)
The units are degrees and decimal minutes.
For most maps the measurement will be approximate, but will be quoted to 1 decimal place in minutes. The 'middle' of the city on the map will be used as its position. Winchester's official longitude is 1d 18.5m W; other readings indicate either inaccurate plotting or a different prime meridian.
Camden, William: 1607 (6th edn): Britannia: (London)
Record the atlas in which the map was published, if known.
Record the Text identity of a HantsMap essay if one has been written for this map type. These references are currently held in MODES file:-
(scan master) MN:NRD1_300.tif
Record the image filename of a master scan image; usually made at 300dpi, stored on CD in uncompressed .tif format. The image file location can be found in the main HMCMSALL database, which will refer you to a CD record in MN:OHM.M[no] sequence where copyright is noted.
Master and derived images for use in Old Hampshire Mapped project are discussed in:-
NUMBER3    If images for use have been made then record these in Number3 subordinate fields under the Reference number:-
NRD1.jpg (large)
ScNRD1.jpg (screen)
ThNRD1.jpg (thumbs)
These are large, screen size and thumbnail images derived from the .tif master file, and have the same copyrights.
Master and derived images for use in Old Hampshire Mapped project are discussed in:-
REFERENCE_NUMBER    There may be a general reference to a booklist about maps:-
As this would be the same for all maps it hardly seems worthwhile. However, bear in mind that the map records exist in a larger database for all the HMCMS collections, the booklist link is useful.
This field is mandatory. See OFR advice and HMCMS local rules:-
Box numbers for items in the Map Collection are on the pattern:-
FAbox [no]
FAbox 54
The whereabouts of the box is recorded in an auxiliary file:-
Reserve items of the Map Collection, not in a gallery display, mostly boxed and presently stored at HMCMS headquarters in room:-
object record
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very good records   This is a 'Better than Good Record' under the loose grading of records used at HMCMS. This level of recording is only justified when there is a research project based on the collection.

The record structure used here is the OBJECT Format which is an expression of the UK Museums Data Standard. The data structure is available as an XML .dtd file from the MODES User Assocation:-
The data structure is a hierarchical structure which is capable of handling data from museum/archive objects without difficulty. Relational databases are not capable of sufficient flexibilty for this task.

    CLASSIFIED_NAME   environment & maps
    SIMPLE_NAME   map
    OTHER_NAME   engraving
    TITLE   Hamshire olim Pars Belgarum
    NAMED_COLLECTION   Map Collection
    BRIEF_DESCRIPTION   Map, hand coloured engraving, Hamshire olim Pars Belgarum, county map of Hampshire, scale about 1 to 240000, about 4 miles to 1 inch, drawn by John Norden about 1595, version engraved by William Hole and published in Britannia by William Camden, 6th edition 1607.
    PART:ASPECT:DESC   : map feature: strapwork cartouche & compass rose & scale line & swash lettering (outside county boundary) & table of symbols (settlements etc) & county & hundreds & table of hundreds & settlements & rivers & woods & forests & relief & hillocks & sea pecked & galleons & sea monsters
    PART:ASPECT:DESC   : scale line: 10 miles = 66.4 mm
    INSCRIPTION   : printed: map (bottom right with scale line):: Jo: Norden descripsit. WHole sculp
    PART:ASPECT:DESC   : map type: HantsMap & Norden 1607
    PERSON   map maker: Norden, John
    DATE   1595
    PERSON   author: Camden, William
    PERSON   engraver: Hole, William
    DATE   1607
    PLACE   Hampshire
    PLACE   Christchurch area & Dorset
    DATE   1595
    TYPE   towns
    PLACE   Aldershot & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Aldershott & Hamshire
    PLACE   Alton & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Alton & Hamshire
    PLACE   Andover & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Andover & Hamshire
    PLACE   Basingstoke & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Basingstoke & Hamshire
    PLACE   Beaulieu & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Baulieu & Hamshire
    PLACE   Bishops Waltham & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Bvshwaltham & Hamshire
    PLACE   Christchurch & Dorset
      PLACE_NAME   Christ. Church & Hamshire
    PLACE   Fareham & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Fareham & Hamshire
    PLACE   Fordingbridge & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Fordingbridg & Hamshire
    PLACE   Gosport & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Gosport & Hamshire
    PLACE   Havant & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Havant & Hamshire
    PLACE   Kingsclere & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Kingsclere & Hamshire
    PLACE   Lymington & Lymington and Pennington & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Lymington & Hamshire
    PLACE   Alresford & New Alresford & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Alresford & Hamshire
    PLACE   Odiham & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Odgath & Hamshire
    PLACE   Overton & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Overton & Hamshire
    PLACE   Petersfield & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Petersfeild & Hamshire
    PLACE   Portsmouth &
      PLACE_NAME   Portesmouth & Hamshire
    PLACE   Ringwood & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Ringwood & Hamshire
      PLACE_NAME   Regnum
      PLACE_NAME   Regnum
    PLACE   Romsey & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Rumsey & Hamshire
    PLACE   Southampton & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Southampton & Hamshire
    PLACE   Stockbridge & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Stokebridge & Hamshire
    PLACE   Whitchurch & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Whitchurch & Hamshire
    PLACE   Winchester & Hampshire
      PLACE_NAME   Winchester & Hamshire
      PLACE_NAME   Venta
      PLACE_NAME   Venta
    DATE   1595
    PERIOD   16th century & 17th century, early
    METHOD   untraced find
  VALUATION   low value: 1996
    MATERIAL   paper
    CONDITION   fair (mounted on poor board)
    PART:DIMEN:READING   : wxh, plate: 326x295mm
    PART:DIMEN:READING   : wxh, map: 320x293mm
    PART:DIMEN:READING   : scale: 1 to 240000 ? (1 to 243371 from scale line wrongly assuming a statute mile)
    REFERENCE_NUMBER   (scan master) MN:NRD1_300.tif
      NUMBER2   NRD1.jpg (large)
      NUMBER3   ScNRD1.jpg (screen)
      NUMBER3   ThNRD1.jpg (thumbs)
    REFERENCE   Camden, William: 1607 (6th edn): Britannia: (London)
    REFERENCE   Norgate, Martin & Norgate, Jean: 1997: Notes from Norden's Map of Hampshire: Hampshire CC Museums Service:: ISBN 1 85975 131 8
  RECORDER   MN: 13.11.2001
  RECORD_TYPE   object record
  ASSIGNED_NUMBER   H0088723.htm
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HantsMap is a database listing known maps of the whole or regions of the county of Hampshire.
scope:-    HantsMap includes any map of the whole county or large regions of the county and its coast, but generally excludes maps of individual towns, estates, and so on. Maps from the 16th to the mid 19th century are included as systematically as possible, later maps might be included out of particular interest or because there happens to be an example in the museum service Map Collection.

The database also includes route maps of roads, railways, and canals which pass through the county. It mostly excludes the incidental mapping of the county as part of a larger regional or country map but a selection of such larger maps and charts, which are part of the Map Collection, or have been studied in some detail are included. They put Hampshire in its wider setting. In numerous cases the size of Hampshire on a map of England and Wales is bigger than some of the single county maps.

BUT, and it is very big BUT, other maps, road books, guides, etc, outside the basic scope of the project, might be included on a whim. This sort of database must act as a scratch pad for developing research as well as the record of more completed work.
map types:-    The 'map type' terms which identify these records try to reflect who made the map and when, for example 'Norden 1607'. This is not always a clear issue. This naming is only an identifier, do not read too much into it; other recorded data tries to make clear who did what, author, map maker, engraver, publisher, and so on. In the example cited John Norden drew the manuscript map about 1595, the map referred to is the version engraved in 1607.
completeness?-    The pages are downloaded from a live database, which will never be complete or utterly correct, new data is always likely to be added as research proceeds. Making this data accessible by publication does not imply the sort of completeness that publishing a book appears to have (books are usually just as incomplete). The data is offered to be shared, whether in machine readable form or in hard copy, with the caveat that it must be accepted for what it is - the data presently held.
transcriptions:-    Transcriptions from items in the HMCMS Map Collection given as examples, are letter for letter, upper and lowercase as read, usually a [space][slash][space] means a new line, square brackets are used for inferred readings. Fontposture, such as italic and font are not preserved. Line layouts might be ignored in the checklist entries. The rules for other researchers' transcriptions are not known.
illustrations:-    Many items from the Map Collection have been used to illustrate this directory. Images of the whole maps, larger than life size, are available in the webiste/CD version of the checklist project.

Illustrations in the printed checklist are of the map's TITLE, and, if it has one, the map's SCALE LINE. The illustrations cannot all be printed true to life size, but each has a 1 centimetre line superimposed.

The scale line is one of the most effective identifying features for maps. , eg:-
scale line 10 miles = 54.3mm
Do not depend on the implied 0.1 mm accuracy! Reading accuracy is about +-0.2 mm, and there are other considerations, eg the stretch of paper as humidity changes which affects measurements of this sort. Chubb's imperial measures of scale lines have been converted to metric; his reading accuracy is not known.

Remember that map colouring is, for early maps, hand colouring, and might have been done at any time between printing and today. The colours on the maps illustrated will not be the same as the colours on another copy of the map.
scale:-    The data for each map may include an entry for the map scale expressed in absolute terms, eg:-
1 to 250000 ?
The scale is frequently calculated from the scale line on the map, which ignores the problem that the 'mile' may not be a modern statute mile. Other estimates of the scale might have been made from a latitude scale; or by comparing the distances between towns with known distances, aided by DISTTAB.exe software to do the sums. This last method is most reliable, and produces a measure of the map maker's mile, perhaps an Old English Mile. The scale given may not be the true scale of the map, the question mark means what it says, but the given scale is, nevertheless, another useful indexing tool. The scale expressed miles to inch in the descriptions is a more approximate figure.
example data:-    Where possible real data from a copy of the map is displayed from an item in the HMCMS Map Collection or some private collection; sizes, scales, inscriptions, etc. This data is picked up automatically by the display procedure and includes only one example set of data. There may be other items in the collection, as indicated lower in the entry.
acknowledgements:-    As well as the major sources in published works, I am grateful for the access I have to the HMCMS Map Collection, which I currently curate, and the encouragement of the Keeper, Alastair Penfold; to Dominic Fontana and Peter Collier of Portsmouth University; to Adrian Webb at the Hydrographic Office; to Doreen M Green, Ann Downs, and numerous other map dealers all over England, Wales, and Scotland, who have ever been helpful and encouraging; to the owners of private collections, David Webb, Paddy Sandford-Johnson, Winchester College, and others, for permission to look at their collections and reproduce some items; and to the British Library, Hampshire Record Office, Hampshire Library Service, and Wiltshire Library and Museums Service.
publication:-    Published is a heavyweight word; with implications of completeness, correctness, and authority. 'If information is published it must be true.' BUT:-

That is no longer a reasonable view of publication in an age of databases and electronic communication, even if publication still uses the medium of print on paper. This published checklist is an attempt to share knowledge that has accumulated in a database and reached a stable phase; now growing and altering less rapidly. The database is certainly not complete; I only hope it is reasonably correct; my personal authority is slight, my access to primary sources outwith our collections limited - London and other places are not as accessible as they pretend. But the database is a useful tool for identifying Hampshire maps, and deserves to be made available to others.
references:-    Data for the entries in the database was initially cribbed from the major reference sources about atlases of county maps, Chubb, Skelton and Hodson, and some minor reference books, extracting specific information about Hampshire maps from these authors' more general approach. Improvements to descriptions, and additions to the list, have come from items in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museum Service (HMCMS), and from items in other public and private collections.

Chubb, Thomas: 1966 (reprint) & 1927: Printed Maps in the Atlases of Great Britain and Ireland (1579-1870): Dawsons of Pall Mall (London)(reprint)

Fordham, Herbert G, Sir: 1924: Road Books and Itineraries of Great Britain: Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, Cambridgeshire)

Green, D M, Mrs: 1999=2002: private communications

Hodson, Donald: 1984: County Atlases of the British Isles (vol.1 1704-42): Tewin Press (Tewin, Hertfordshire):: ISBN 0 9509149 0 8

Hodson, Donald: 1989: County Atlases of the British Isles (vol.2 1743-63): Tewin Press (Tewin, Hertfordshire):: ISBN 0 9509149 1 6

Hodson, Donald: 1997: County Atlases of the British Isles (vol.3 1764-89): British Library (London):: ISBN 0 7123 4524 8

Sandford-Johnson, Paddy: 2004: private communications

Rodger, Elizabeth M: 1989: Large Scale English County Maps and Plans of Cities not printed in Atlases: Map Collector: vol.47: pp.11-18

Skelton, R A: 1970: County Atlases of the British Isles (1579-1850): Carta Press (London)

Smith, David: 1996: Victorian Maps of the British Isles: Batsford:: ISBN 0 7134 4178 X

Tooley, R V: 1979: Tooley's Dictionary of Mapmakers: Map Collector Publications

Webb, David: 1999=2002: private communications

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essays   Writing essays about maps in the Map Collection of Hampshire CC Museums Service (HMCMS) has followed an irregular programme. It has included some maps which are not in the collection, studied for the understanding they provide to items which are in the collection. Not all the key maps are described, yet. Some less important maps are already described because it was convenient to do so. ...

The core of most essays is a group of notes about map features, which follow a common pattern. But: as my knowledge of old maps improves I know to ask more questions, to describe more features; terminology has developed as time goes by. As the range of maps widens the demands are different. In other words; the essays cannot be expected to be one hundred percent 'even' and consistent. What is difficult to know is whether the notes are too fussy but insufficiently detailed or precise, or are they a useful description of the mapping. Writing them has made me look at the maps carefully, which has been fun as well as instructive.

The map notes are repetitive. This is not an oversight; each map note is designed to stand alone, out of the context of the series. The map catalogue descriptions, checklist descriptions, and map notes are designed for access as elements in a data system - not designed to be read in sequence as a commentary on mapping in the county. Each element must make sense by itself.

As well as map notes there are transcriptions of travellers' and other commentators.

snips   Where possible an essay is illustrated by 'snips' taken from the map. I am grateful to HMCMS for access to maps in the Map Collection, and especially to several private owners, including David Webb and Paddy Sandford-Johnson, who allowed me to scan their maps to provide images.

warning!   It is important not to judge a map of an earlier age by the standards of today. Although I have used the same series of staring points, the map features, from which to make notes about each map over a wide range of dates, I have tried to present the comments as observations without interpretation and judgement. No doubt I have not entirely succeeded in objectivity; there is no way I can have avoided my own mindset. The aim, nevertheless, is to make accessible, not to judge. The parallelism of comments on maps from the mid 14th to early 20th century is, I believe, valuable.

source map   The description of the source map at the end of an essay is automatically picked up from the catalogue of the Map Collection. It is just possible that, as time has passed, the catalogue entry and the essay are no longer in total agreement, for which I am sorry. As stated elsewhere in the suite of map records in the Old Hampshire Mapped project, the data is downloaded, to be shared, from various active databases. I believe it is far more important to share what has been done than to contrive utter consistency for 'publication', which will only be upset a day later.

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scanning   An example of each map type in the Old Hampshire Mapped project has been scanned at 300dpi (600dpi for small maps). A flat bed scanner is used so that the map image is at a known dpi. This image can be used for making measurements, and can be easily georeferenced. The image is cleaned up as little as possible; straightened, checked to see that paper colour is correct, multiple scans stitched together, etc. The image is saved on:-
PC mode 1 CDROM to ISO9660 standard using a MS DOS 8.3 style filename in uncompressed .tif format.
The archive CDs are documented as items in the Map Collection.
image filename   The map image filename is on the pattern:-
using filecode element Mkr controlled by database/termlist:-
300 or 600 is used as appropriate (and it may even be a different number), recording the dpi of the scan. Note that there is a serious problem with filenames on a CD. The careful filenaming may have to be altered. BUT, filenames on a CD cannot be changed. The CD is never used directly; the derivative file from the CD is always renamed to the preferred filename. This is discussed in a guideline:-
other images   Sometimes more than one image is made from one map; cover, title page, map from an atlas for instance. In these cases an adhoc system of image filenames has been used, all based on the short filecode 'Mkr'. A suffix is generally added to distinguish files, and to be mnemonic for the image content. The suffix has mostly been three letters and has a one or two letter equivalent where a derivative file is limited to 6 characters so that there is room for a 'Sc' or 'Th' prefix (see below). All a bit messy. A rough list:-

image filename suffixes

suffix short version likely content of image
BCK BK back [cover]
BLNK BL blank [paper, used for image editing]
COV C cover
CTY CY county
CVR C cover
DEC DC decoration
DED D dedication
DIS DS distance table
EW EW England and Wales
EW_S SE southern or SE England
FPC F frontispiece
HAM H Hampshire
KEY K key
N N north
NDX X index
NTRO N introduction
PIC PC picture
ROD R road
RWY RY railways
S S south
S SE southern or SE England
SCL SC scale
SE SE southern or SE England
SENG SE southern or SE England
SW SW SW England
SYM SY table of symbols
TAB TB tabulation
TXT TX text
WMK WM watermark
Map images for use are reduced to about 150 or 200dpi, sharpenned some etc, saved as .jpg with medium compression, about level 4 (these are generalisations, individual maps get appropriate processing). Note that the .jpg file includes dpi data.
website filename   The map image files for use in Old Hampshire Mapped website are given filenames on the various patterns:-
[Mkr][ngr square].jpg


A few examples:-
and so on.
The image filenames use filecode elements Mkr and Maker and feature codes, ftr, discussed in:-
The full range of filenames and locations of image files are explained in pages of the website.
map records   Images for the map Object Records, checklist Class Records, and Map notes use other patterns of filename. Map object records have:-
These are large, screen size and thumbnail images derived from the .tif master file, and have the same copyrights
The large image is usually 150-200dpi in .jpg format, the full size of the original. This presents the map well lit and clear, as if viewed with a 2 or 3 times hand lens. 16bit MODES may not display it well, and may even refuse to show it at all, because the image file is large.
NRD1.jpg (large)
stored in:-
The screen image is made to fit the computer screen, 480 pixels wide. This screen size image will be unreadable, even if it is pretty. We deplore providing only that sort of unhelpful image, so any access system should link to the corresponding large image. It is silly, and condescending to users, to provide only a small, illegible, image.
ScNRD1.jpg (screen)
stored in:-
The thumbnail image is a fixed 120 pixels wide.
ThNRD1.jpg (thumb)
stored in:-
If there are more than 1 image from an item then the adhoc suffixes described above might be used in their short form.
Checklist class records have:-
An image of the title cartouche, or just title, has been made from each map type in Old Hampshire Mapped project. The selected part of the scanned master image is overlaid with a 1cm scale line, reduced to 150dpi (300dpi for small maps), edges sharpenned, fade sharpenning by darken, and saved as .jpg format, eg:-
*QUOTE4 Nrd1Tit.jpg
stored in:-
An image of the scale line has been made from each map type in the Old Hampshire Mapped project. The selected part of the scanned master image is overlaid with a 1cm scale line, reduced to 150dpi (300dpi for small maps), edges sharpenned, fade sharpenning by darken, and saved as .jpg format, eg:-
stored in:-
Map notes have 'snips':-
Snips are images of map features are cut from the whole map image to a standard size, 120x60 pixels. The images do not attempt to be perfect example of each and every feature, but they try to show an typical example of the map feature, style of cartographic representation ... Eg:-
stored in:-
The number 1 is reserved for feature snips meeting these specifications. Numbers 2 onward may be further snips, but may be other sizes for other purposes.
Many maps have snips for a fairly standard set of features, termlist:-
Filecode elements Maker and Mkr are described in:-
copyright   Images are copyright of Jean M Norgate who did the scanning and image processing.

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